SUMMARY. All nations will eventually require a Job Guarantee (JG) or Universal Basic Income (UBI) program because of the irreversible loss of jobs resulting from automation and globalization. An advantage of a JG over a UBI program (besides possible cultural issues) is that the JG improves the stability of prices (ie., reduces inflation/deflation possibilities) by acting as a counter-cyclical automatic stabilizer, ie., JG spending increases automatically as private sector spending decreases, and vice versa. The JG programs I've seen described range from wasteful to unworkable. So I've taken a pass at one I believe is better. Its advantages are:
2) Maximum automation. Program activity is via a National website, divided by State into Local government pages. Each Local government page displays the JG work available locally with communication tools that facilitate interviewing for the work with the applicable manager and payment for the work if hired. The National website is integrated with the existing consumer banking system so that payments are automatically credited to workers' JG debit cards for spending as soon as the day following the work. Inflation fears are inapplicable as those choosing JG work will be spending, by necessity, with local businesses coincident with receipt of payments.
3) Minimum overhead. No program costs are incurred by Local government as their participation is from self-interest and constitutes only an added duty for existing employees. No program costs are incurred by State government as their function is limited to deciding which Local governments are eligible for participation. Program costs incurred by the National government involve setting up and maintaining the National website and integrating it with the consumer banking system. This can be done internally or by contracting it out. I favor contracting it out through competitive bidding with preference given to a small entrepreneurial firm that can demonstrate the required level of security with an ability to work innovatively with Local governments.
4) Orderly growth. Local governments choose whether and when to participate in the program. The most needy and daring Local governments will be the first to participate. This gives time to fine-tune the website display formats and communication tools to best fit the needs of the Local users as more Local governments choose to participate.
Describes the local work-available, with the LGM to contact.
Display format is cleanly functional, eg., layout by engineer, not artist.
Mobile friendly compatible with all digital devices.
Available at central location for those not having such a device.
Communication between designated participants are private (and recorded),
are non-interrupting to recipient and batch send is available to senior
LGSM: Communications between LGS and LGMs.
LGMP: Communications between LGPs and applicable LGM.
LGSP: Communications between LGPs and LGS for program complaints.
SGS: Communications between State and LGSs.
NGS: Communications between National and State.
Data: Work time submissions between LGM and National.
LG Supervisor (LGS) is an elected Local Government official.
Gives local people influence over local program.
2) Determines what work categories are offered, eg., departmental
assistance, community care, household care, special programs.
LGS is the person in charge of and responsible for the local program.
3) May add and delete work categories.
One-week notice is required before deleting a work category to give LGMs time to find alternative ways to cover the affected work (if needed).
4) Designates LGM for each selected work category.
LGS has managerial authority and responsibility for LGMs. LGMs are generally existing Local Government employees, but LGS may hire new LGMs for new work categories as new Local Government employees.
5) Posts LGMs with contact info on the Local Government work-available webpage.
Page has a recorded but private LGSM comm tool for ongoing communications to/from LGMs.
6) Assesses new work category suggestions; decides whether to
add suggested work and designates LGM to manage it.
Page has a recorded but private LGSP comm tool for suggestion/complaint communications with LGPs.
LG Manager (LGM)
2) Assesses LGP's eligibility for the work.
Page has a recorded but private LGMP comm tool to facilitate this assessment. This interaction with LGPs will assist LGMs in more clearly describing the work offered.
3) Decides whether to hire them.
LGM has full managerial authority and responsibility for their LGPs.
4) Verifies or collects LGP ID code.
LGP supplies ID-code with photo and facial-recognition data, which National verifies or adds to its ID database. ID data is heavily encripted and stored only at National. Until suitable imaging devices become generally available, National supplies the device to Local Governments for LGM use.
5) Posts LGP name/ID to work-time file and enables LGP passcode access
LGP work-time data is accessible only to LGS and responsible LGM.
6) May add or delete work-available listings.
Two-day notice is required before deleting a work-available listing to give LGPs time to find alternative work.
7) Manages LGP work with full authority to fire
if work performance is unsatisfactory.
LGP may appeal to LGS via LGSP comm tool.
8) Approves LGP's work-time postings.
Approval triggers transmission to National. LG entry tool prevents work-time entry of greater than 24 hours. If LGM errs in approval, corrections are made the next day(s).
9) Assesses new work suggestions if applicable to their responsibility;
decides whether to add suggested work.
Via the LGMP comm tool.
LG Participant (LGP)
1) Scans Local Government work-available page for work of interest.
May also look for work on other Local Goverment work-available pages.
2) Talks with LGM about posted work they're interested in.
Via LGMP comm tool.
3) Decides whether to do work if LGM decides they're eligible.
Min eligible age is 16; LGP is free to quit but rehire is subject to LGM approval.
4) Posts work start/end times subject to LGM approval.
Work is paid via debit card at $15/hour, to nearest minute, available the following day.
No employee benefits are provided as those are most efficiently provided by separate or supplemental programs.
5) Suggests new work to LGM or LGS as applicable via LGSM or LGSP comunication tool.
1) Determines which Local Governments are eligible
and posts links to their webpage.
LG selections are compromise between smallest possible population headed by an elected official (to assure max local influence) and where local work is managed.
2) Approves Local Government participation requests
and LGS selection.
Via SGS comm tool; LGS is an elected official.
3) Coordinates with LGSs via SGS comm tool on work projects requiring multi-LGS participation.
2) Sets up secure JG website with links to each State section.
Security and reliable backup ultra important.
3) Sets standardized format for State and Local webpages with required
access/entry and comm tools.
Standardization important so LGPs can freely move to other LGs in nation with minimum hassle to them or program administrators.
4) Sets up national-accessible bank account for each LGP
and sees that each is issued a debit card.
Completely automated - no human intervention.
Debit cards can be eliminated when auto-pay phones become standardized and inexpensive.
Compatible with and reinforcing of the FedAccounts initiative
5) Compiles LGP hours-worked daily
and credits their account with dollars earned.
Completely automated - no human intervention.
These credits are not added to the National debt.
"The program’s nonwage benefit costs are set at 20 percent. In addition, we assume that the program’s materials and other costs are equal to 25 percent of wage costs."
PUBLIC SERVICE EMPLOYMENT: A PATH TO FULL EMPLOYMENT by L. Randall Wray, Flavia Dantas, Scott Fullwiler, Pavlina R. Tcherneva, and Stephanie A. Kelton, The Levy Economics Institute, April 2018